John Brown Moscrop and his Innovative Fly Fishing Reel

moscropflyreelfront
Front of the Moscrop Fly Reel showing the handle and tension adjuster.

John Brown Moscrop was born in Bury close to Manchester in the county of Lancashire in 1830. After starting his working life as an articled clerk to a firm of Architects he realised that it was not for him and left. His chosen profession was that of a cotton spinner.

Moscrop invented and patented the steam and speed recorder for spinning machines that was soon adopted by every textile mill in England. Various other patents followed, and it would not be long before he turned his attention to his hobby – fishing.

Moscrop was a member of the old established fishing club The Manchester Angling Society. His first application for a fishing reel was in February 1888 and this was granted in April of that year. At this time he was living in the Manchester suburb of Urmston.

By reading the three patents that he submitted we can get some idea of how the reel progressed, developed, and evolved into the reel which we know so well today.

moscrop patent detail first model
Moscrop Patent Detail First Model.
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Patent Detail of the First Model Moscrop showing the Internal Clip Fixing.

The basic principle of the Moscrop reel was laid down in the first patent (document 2900) of February 1888.

1. The reel frame is cast in one piece and then machined out.

2. The improved construction of the drum, again cast from a single piece resulting in better line ventilation.

3. The method by which the drum is held securely in place on the frame.

I have never seen the reel shown in the patent drawing above and I believe it would have had a very short if any, production run.

The reason is that the method of fixing the drum to the frame was not satisfactory and would indeed have proved difficult to remove the drum. If you follow the axis A A on the patent drawing you can see where the hollow spindle has an annular groove cut into it.

Into this groove is inserted a steel spring clip. On the inside of the bore of the drum is cut a corresponding groove into which slots the steel spring clip.

Moscrop Second Model Faceplate
Moscrop Second Model Faceplate.

Now patent 2900 was accepted on April 6th, 1888 but on June 4th of the same year, (just three months later), he was back with an improvement. This patent, number 8122 is dated June 4th and is interesting in that the general outline is given in the provisional application.

moscropsecondmodelfootdetails
Moscrop Second Model Foot Details

Provisional applications allow the person submitting the new idea to get some form of protection without submitting great amounts of detail. Usually, it allows them to think out and practically apply their ideas. 

There were two improvements offered in the provisional application. The first was two friction plates to hold the drum and frame together, these also act as a drag mechanism.

moscropflyreel2ndmodelback
Moscrop Fly Reel 2nd Model Back

The second was for the handle construction – and here we have something of a puzzle. I suspect that the original reel carried the improved handle, but he had simply forgotten to include it in the original patent application, or possibly the construction had not been perfected.

moscropflyreelhandledetails
Moscrop Fly Reel Handle Details From the Second Model.

However, when the complete specification is submitted on March 2nd, 1889, Moscrop only pursues the friction plate arrangement and specifically in relationship to the handle states “I do not desire to embrace the same in the present Specification” – I wonder why?

The reel in the photograph is the same as that shown in the patent drawings, manufactured from “gunmetal” which is a specific type of brass and has a fixed check. The peg referred to in the provisional patent as a means of fixing a check pawl is missing.

moscropflyreeltensionscrew
Moscrop Fly Reel Tension Screw Detail.

As seen in the photographs above, we have the two plates and retaining lugs connected with a fixed screw head with the spring. Tightening up the plate on the back of the reel, as shown in image 6 above, increases drag for the drum.

Every half turn there is positive locking of the plate.

There is no name on the reel but this reel, that matches the patent application perfectly, and the named special Moscrop shown later in the article, came from the same Manchester workshop, and therefore we can assume that it is a Moscrop reel.

The handle on this second model reel does conform to the normal Moscrop handle, I do not know why he did not add the handle details to the patent specification.

I can only imagine what was going through his mind once he had managed to get a working model of his reel into production – “How do I improve it?”

patent17501dragmechanismmoscrop
Patent 17501 Drag Mechanism Moscrop Fly Reel October 1891.

Well, in October 1891 he returned to the patent office with further improvements that radically differ from the second model and were a major innovation in reel design.

He had also moved home during this time and was now living in a “better” area of Manchester, Platt Lane in the leafy suburb of Rusholme.

Patent 17501 was accepted in August 1892, nearly ten months after his initial application. He states in his opening preamble that the improvements refer to his two previous patents and these new ideas will result in a more efficient reel.

The first improvement was in the drag mechanism. The drawing fig 4 from the patent shows this arrangement on the reel drum.

A hollow tube, or flanged thimble as Moscrop calls it, ending at F acts upon the back of the reel frame. The hollow tube was under pressure by means of a spring tightened by a thumb piece G. The thumb piece was screwed in and this in turn acted on a threaded nut B that compressed the screw. The nut was prevented from revolving by having one side machined to match the barrel.

Again, there was a major design change between the Provisional Patent and the Completed Specification. Originally the hollow tube, or flanged thimble, was not included but I suspect that under pressure the spring would have been distorted.

He also offers another method of fitting the pawl where he replaces the wire spring J with a coiled spring. I suspect that this was for larger diameter reels as the straight wire would not have applied sufficient pressure.

patent17501moscropreel
Fig. 6 from Patent 17501 Moscrop Fly Reel, October 1891 showing how the pawl and spring mechanism is fitted.

The next improvement was the radical departure from existing reel design. What Moscrop did was to fit the check pawl to the reel drum and the check cog to the inside back frame of the reel. Conventional design before, and in many cases since, was the reverse of this.

moscropcheckmechanism2ndmodel
Moscrop Check Mechanism 2nd Model Fitted in the “Conventional” place as per Patent 17501.

The back plate of the reel drum was pressed out with a square profile into which sat the hollow tube and the check pawl. This change in profile again differed from the conventional curved style that had the check cog fitted to it. This square profile is clearly shown by the dark lines in patent drawing fig 4.

The brass pillars that form the drum core are called lantern rods by Moscrop, this we must remember was at a time when lanterns for use in lighting were common.

What he does is fit the pawl to a wire that passes down a hollow lantern rod, Fig 6 from the patent drawing shows how this is achieved. The hollow rod K has the wire J passing through it. It is attached to another rod L. The hollow axis is W.

moscrophollowspindle
Moscrop Reel Drum Base Showing the Hollow Spindle and Check Pawl fitted in the recess.

Exactly why he chose this method of building a reel I do not know, I cannot see any advantage with this arrangement but Moscrop does offer an explanation in the patent document.

He claims that the reel would have “greater rigidity” and “produced with less skill and trouble and consequently cheaper than heretofore”.

I disagree the construction of the reel would have required skilled labour, especially when all the improvements are looked at and evaluated.

The next improvement was one that as far as I am aware only applied to the Moscrop reel.

Here the handle has a hollow brass dowel inserted into the vulcanite. The stem is fixed like a rivet with one end beaten to hold it to the drum. At the other end a ring fits into a recess at the top of the stem and holds it in place thus allowing the handle to rotate freely between the drum face and the bottom of the handle.

The picture of the handle detail is from the second model and it is clear that the method of fixing it to the reel had already been solved.

What was the reason that he did not include it in the second patent application, or did he have another method in mind? We shall never know.

The final improvement was in the method of fixing the drum to the frame. Again, we see something specific to Moscrop reels, the famous Moscrop Medallion.

moscropreelclipandmedallion
Moscrop Reel U Shaped Clip and Medallion.

The U-shaped wire is passed through the disc this in turn goes through the hollow axis of the drum. This has two small holes near the top into which the wire clips thus holding the drum in place.

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Moscrop Medalion Detail.

The bottom of the hollow spindle is slightly bevelled so that the drum can be located easily.

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Moscrop Advert June 1893 for the 5 Models Available.

Moscrop made the first reels himself possibly using his own machinists who made his non fishing products. They were offered for sale through the tackle shop of Will Chambers of 25 Market Place Manchester. Although there is no mention of Will Chambers in the adverts.

willchambersadvert1893
Will Chambers Advert December 1893

S. Allcock are listed as the wholesale agents and would in future years play a major role in the story of this reel.

The reels offered were in five sizes with the two smallest having the option of no drag fitted. The sizes were 2 5/8, 3, 3½, 4 and 4½ inches. Later would be added the impressive 5¼ inch with double nickel silver rollers. It must have been a nightmare to use as it weighed two pounds without line.

In 1894 the second Fisheries Exhibition was held at the Royal Aquarium. John Brown Moscrop shared a stand with the Cheltenham based company of Ogden & Scotford.

He was showing his complete range of reels including his latest improvement. Now the report states that he was hollowing out the spindle. This I think the writer had got wrong, what he was doing was removing material from the outside of the spindle to leave two small areas to act as a bearing surface.

moscropbearingsurfacedetail
Moscrop Bearing Surface Detail Made by Removing the Centre Section.

Moscrop was offering to take back any of the old reels and carry out the modifications himself free of charge.

I expect that the problems of manufacturing the reels was getting too much for him and consequently in having appointed Allcock as his wholesale agent he took things further.

moscropreelfootmadebymoscrop
The Foot of the Moscrop Manufactured Reel.

He sold all the models and patent rights to Allcock who manufactured the reels. When Allcock took on the distribution of the reel it was given the model number 4106 in their catalogue. Allcock added their own name to the medallion on the back of the reel and dropped the J.B.MOSCROP MANCHESTER from the reel foot.

moscropfootstampingdetail
The Foot of the Moscrop Reel and Solid Spindle. Note the Size of the Frame Section. Manufactured Sometime Between the Second and Third Model.

They then started to make improvements to the reel and the first thing they did was to strengthen the check by fitting a check spring in the recess.

The model number was changed to 4107 in the 1910 catalogue. They also introduce the reel in aluminium with the improved check. This was given the model number 4107A and was available in all the same sizes as the gunmetal version.

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Illustration from the 1924 Allcock Catalogue of the Moscrop Model 4170M with Handle Receiver.

The obvious advantage was the reduction in weight. The 5¼ inch model was ten ounces lighter than its gunmetal counterpart.

However, there was an obvious problem with the handle on the alloy version because they had to fit a handle plate.

In 1928 the last model was added, 4107AM. This is a very rare reel, and I must admit I have never seen one. It was only available in the 5¼ inch aluminium and was for Mahseer fishing. The reel had two handles and could hold 200 yards of the Allcock Anglo-Indian waterproof silk line.

By 1932 the complete range of reels had disappeared from the catalogues.

moscropretainingdrumclamp
Moscrop Reel with Prototype Spool Retaining Drum Clamp. Not named but has the Same Spindle as the Named One.

During the period that Allcock manufactured the reel they were always warning retailers to look out for imitations. They only way to tell that the item was genuine was to look for the medallion on the back.

moscropdrumdetail
Moscrop Reel Drum Showing the Reel Clamp.

I did once look at a few reels that a collector had which he was convinced were prototypes. At the time I was unsure, but I now think that they were copies of the Moscrop reel.

The reel pictured over is a prototype or an attempt during the progression of the reel to come up with another method of holding the drum to the frame.

There is no medallion, and the hollow spindle has been replaced with solid one. Note the size of the section of the frame where the foot is fixed. Somewhere between the first and third model.

The drum is held in place by what can best be described as a pair of nutcrackers that contract and open by action of a wheel.

moscroptensionspringdetail
Moscrop Spring Detail Operated by the Tension Reel.

The tension to operate the wheel is by a spring entwined in the lantern rods. Having examined the reel carefully it is obvious that this would be too expensive to manufacture.

The Hardy Super Silex

It’s mid-February 1994. Early morning on the little Qualicum river, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. A lone angler has chosen the first run of the day to fish. As the moist rainforest mist begins to rise, he adjusts his cork float to 6 or 7 feet, chucks his bait and begins a side arm swing of his eleven-foot graphite rod. He cast his offering out, mid river, and watches intently as it follows the rivers flow through the pool.

Hardy Super Silex
Hardy Super Silex 4 1/2 inch backplate.

As his drift is half­way down the river his cork is suddenly pulled out of sight, instinctively he strikes, kicks over the ivory button on his reel and the fish is on! A wild, angry 151b wild steelhead buck(male) strips out line at a fantastic rate. The old reel cries with delight as the majestic rainbow takes line. The angler loves all the elements in play. the visual surroundings, the wild fish and nature, but most of all the song of his prized 60-year-old Super Silex reel. No other reel that is fished offers the same one on one gamesmanship as this revered Hardy reel.

It might be safe to say that there is quite possible more Super Silex reels in British Columbia than in the British Isles.

The Hardy Super Silex began life in 1928 as a reel very similar to its stable mate the Silex Major. It is a reel with an internal drum and a cut-out rim to allow palming of the reel. I have personally seen 6 examples of the first supers, and all are jewelled and have both leaded spool and cage. This reel also has a brass ratchet regulator with two ivorine moon indicators or gauges. This form of Super Silex is very collectable but not desirable for angling.

Hardy Super Silex
Hardy Super Silex Faceplate

1929 saw the evolution of the Super Silex into a close relative of the 1923 Triumph centrepin reel (also very highly sought after. Not the coarse style triumph.) The super developed a silvery spool/drum which allowed easy palming while playing a fish. The early Super Silex had 5 hex nuts on its cage back and possessed a small aluminium braking button which was completely useless. This was dropped in 1930.

The 1929 super also had a solid blued ratchet which created a clicking noise both in and out when a fish was being played. Very noisy. These reels were stamped pat. no 24245 & 9261. Around 1930 the advent or use of the silent wind in ratchet was introduced. This unit was in use on Silex Majors and was found on reels patent no. 355494. This allowed “peace of mind” quiet on retrieve but beautiful noise on fish runs.

Hardy Brothers catalogue
Hardy Brothers Super Silex Catalogue Description.

The Super Silex is an intricate reel and very few Hardy reels demanded as much thought and precision as these fine centrepins did. Makers such as GT, RMS, JBW, TA, PW, RH, have appeared on the inside of supers. My personal favourite builder was T. A. Tommy Appleby. His reels always seem to be stronger, run truer and again in my opinion have more character.

Sizes of the Super Silex included 3, 3¼, 3 ½ inch wide drum (uncatalogued). 3½, 3¾ inch wide drum, 4, 4¼, 4½, 4½ inch wide drum. Variations of the Super Silex were available. Fairly scarce are the solid faced Super Silex’s which are usually in 3¾ or 4 – inch sizes.

 Super Silex’s were also available in Dural metal for tidal angling and were much lighter in weight than the regular leaded aluminium reels of the same size. These reels look highly polished and are as shiny as chrome.

A Dural Super was usually stamped on both the inside cage and drum core with a large “D”, identical to Walter Dingley’s “D”, or an “H”.

We assume that the “D” is for Dural but what is the “H” for? All sizes of Dural were manufactured and accounted for except the 3-inch size, not yet found.

Ed. H is for HIDUMINIUM a high strength, high temperature  aluminium alloy developed for Rolls Royce aircraft engines pre WWII.

There was also the Super Silex multipliers and I have seen 3½, 3¼ and a rare 3 9/16-inch example which was owned by Chris Henshaw in 1992. Most multipliers were made by RMS. Marshall Scott was asked by a friend in 1976 why his name was on most of the multipliers and he replied that he produced most of the multipliers not because he was the best but because he was the youngest. Obviously steadier hands!

The Super Silex remained relatively the same until the war years. The only minor change was the replacement of one of the backplate hex nuts with a rivet. Thus, we now had a 4 nut Super. The war saw major improvements with alloy and materials and the post war Super was developed down to two hex nuts on the backplate, riveted handles (which was a bad idea as the owner could no longer grease the handles.) We also saw that Hardy’s no longer jewelled the spindle shaft and although the red jewel looks pretty it often leaked or wore out.

Hardy Super Silex
Hardy Super Silex 4 inch with internal stamp JD and H for HIDUMINIUM

The Super Silex ceased production sometime in 1953 with the introduction of the Hardy Jewel. The final Supers had straight line logos, enamelled cages and riveted handles and feet but they all are sought after with the same diligence as their first produced Supers of some 30 years prior.

The Super Silex will never fall from grace within the lore of British Columbia steelhead angling. As a man now in my mid-thirties I often stop and admire the beautiful reel that sits on my rod. I drift off and find myself wondering of who first bought the reel that I hold in my hand. Was he as proud of it as I am?

What rivers has this reel fished and what quarry has it taken?

As Roderick Haigh-Brown wrote in the 1938 western angler “If you bait fish and you feel it a must, then I highly recommend the Hardy centrepin “The Super Silex”. In my opinion there is no equal in centrepin”. Well Rod I agree.

MODERN MAINTENANCE OF A SUPER SILEX

Always load the reel with Dacron or wool backing before filling with monofilament This will avoid crushing the drum as monofilament will contract with time.

Do not polish either the spool face or the brass foot. You will devalue the reel by removing the original drum lacquer and foot bluing.

Always use the lightest oil possible on your super spindle or centrepin. I recommend Hoppes No 9 gun oil from America. It is friction free and is the best I have yet tried.

Also always lightly wipe your reel down with a soft cotton cloth and the above-mentioned oil afters a day’s angling. Do not use WF40 on any leaded Hardy reel as it will wear off the original leading over time.

For trouble free casting always set the regulator at “free” and do not over fill the reel with line. If you do you will be pulling off expensive line and quite possibly turn a day of pleasure into a frustration. Happy fishing.

Originally written by Craig Dickson June 1994.

Images Mullocks Auctions

Published

The Patent Meteor Reel


In 1909 Percy Wadham & Percy Scott patented the Meteor reel suitable for a wide variety of angling. Manufactured and marketed by the Dreadnought Casting Reel Co. Isle of Wight and so far, I have identified 14 variations of the reel.Meteor ReelThe Meteor reel by the Dreadnought Casting Reel Co.This one is number 3 and stamped with PATENT APPLIED FOR would date it at 1908. What many people do not know is what this had to do with Dingley and Hardy Bros.Hardy Bros. threatened to take legal action against Wadham & Scott as they believed that the pair had infringed their patent 28413 of 1896. This patent covered the working of the Silex reel, generally thought to have been invented by Dingley whilst at Hardy’s.What Wadham & Scott had done on the Meteor was to use a lever to put the reel into free spool and added a brake. By utilising the lever with a brake it infringed the patent for the Silex reel.Meteor Reel Meteor Reel FrontIt was at the best a tenuous claim but Wadham & Scott obviously under threat from one of the world’s largest and most litigious companies buckled.A settlement was arranged and they were allowed to use the 1896 patent provided they paid 6d for every reel made, hence the number stamping on the foot of the Meteor reel.In return Hardy would use patents 18212 and 28413 on their reels and in particularly the new reel they were working on the Silex No2.Meteor Reel insideMeteor Reel inside view showing the method of engaging free spool and the brake.The idea of the check being disengaged by the same lever that operated the brake. They paid Wadham & Scott 6d for every Silex No2 made. We know that Dingley was being paid 6d for every Silex No 1 made.With his future earning curtailed this could be the reason that Dingley left Hardy Bros? and started on his own?
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